Dyeing by hand, although superseded almost entirely by machine-dyeing, is still employed in some cases, particularly where only small quantities are required. The dye-vat is of wood, and should be a well-made piece of joinery to withstand the wear and tear incidental to its use. Round the bottom on the inside is fitted a tube of copper or some acid-resisting metal, perforated with small holes, through which steam is passed to heat up the water. The head dyer weighs out the dyestuffs estimated to produce a shade a fraction below the required shade, so as to admit of final adjustment after testing. This, of course, applies equally to hand or machine-dyeing. For hand vats, the skeins of scoured yarn are hung on a set of poles, which, when filled, are placed on brackets above the vat. When the dyestuff has been put in, and the water brought to the required temperature, a pair of workmen, each holding one end of the poles, standing on each side, sets them on the edge of the vat and lets the free ends of the skeins sink down into the liquor. When all the poles are in place, the operators start on the pole at one end, and, raising each skein in turn, draw it over a few inches, so that the part which has hitherto remained outside the liquor is now immersed. When the skeins on one stick are finished, that stick is pushed a little way along and the next is treated similarly. When the whole set is done, the operation is repeated. The essence of the treatment is to keep the yarn moving. If the skeins were allowed to remain in the same place, even after the first moving, there would be “stick marks” at the point where the skein rested on the pole, 의정부오피 because the liquor would not have had as much access to this place as to the rest of the skeins.

After an hour or so, or when sufficient time has been allowed for the dyestuffs to permeate the yarn fibres, the poles are lifted on to the brackets, and a skein is taken out and submitted to the head dyer for matching. The head dyer will compare it with his standard, and, in the case of dyeing to match a cut-pile or tufted fabric such as Wilton or Axminster, he will probably make a tuft from a thread of the sample skein, so as to compare the shade of the cut ends as well as of the outside of the thread. He will then make the necessary corrections or additions to the dye-bath if the exact shade has not been reached, and the operation will be continued until he is satisfied. The poles are then finally lifted, removed from above the vat to a horse; the yarn is then stripped from the poles and passed to the hydro-extractor prior to going on to the stove or drying machine.

The object of dyeing machines, of course, is to effect the same treatment of the yarn as is done by hand as just described, but in a more expeditious way. A machine can, in fact, do nearly twice as much as a man, and in a more regular manner. That is to say, one man can mind a machine of the same capacity as a hand vat which requires two men; but it is desirable, if not, indeed, necessary, that he should have assistance in loading and unloading.