saepe numero soleo: 'it is my frequent custom'. Numero is literally 'by the 안전놀이터 count or reckoning', and in saepe numero had originally the same force as in quadraginta numero and the like; but the phrase came to be used merely as a slight strengthening of saepe. — cum hoc ... cum ceterarum: the use of cum in different senses in the same clause, which seems awkward, is not uncommon; cf. below, 67. The spelling quum was certainly not used by Cicero, and probably by no other Latin writer of the best period. H. 311, foot-note 4. It is worth remarking that cum the conjunction and cum the preposition, though spelt alike, are by origin quite distinct. The former is derived from the pronominal stem ka or kva, and is cognate with qui; the latter comes from the root sak 'to follow', and is cognate with Gk. συν, Lat sequor, etc. See Vanicek, Etymologisches Worterbuch, pp. 96, 984. — rerum ... sapientiam: 'wisdom in affairs'; the objective genitive. — excellentem: in sense much stronger than our 'excellent'; excellentem perfectamque 'pre-eminent and indeed faultless'. — quod ... senserim: this clause takes the place of an object to admirari. The subjunctive is used because the speaker reports his own reason for the wonder, formerly felt, as if according to the views of another person, and without affirming his holding the same view at the time of speaking. Madvig, 357, a, Obs. 1. A 341, d, Rem. — odiosa: this word is not so strong as our 'hateful', but rather means 'wearisome', 'annoying'. In Plautus the frequent expression odiosus es means, in colloquial English, 'you bore me'. Cf. 47 odiosum et molestum; 65 odiosa offensio. — onus Aetna gravius: a proverbial expression with an allusion to Enceladus, who, after the defeat of the Giants by Juppiter, was said to have been imprisoned under Mt. Aetna. Cf. Eurip. Hercules Furens, 637; also Longfellow's poem, Enceladus. — haud sane difficilem: 'surely far from difficult'; cf. 83 haud sane facile. — quibus: a dativus commodi, 'those for whom there is no aid in themselves'. Cf. Lael. 79 quibus in ipsis. — bene beateque vivendum: 'a virtuous and happy life'; 'virtue and happiness'; so bene honesteque below, 70. — qui ... petunt: these are the αυταρκεις, men sufficient for themselves, 'in se toti teretes atque rotundi'. We have here a reminiscence of the Stoic doctrine about the wise man, whose happiness is quite independent of everything outside himself, and is caused solely by his own virtue. Cicero represents the same Stoic theory in Lael. 7. Cf. Juv. Sat. 10, 357-362; also Seneca, De Cons. Sap. VIII, De Prov. I. 5. — a se ipsi: 'themselves from themselves,' so in 78 se ipse moveat ... se ipse relucturus sit; 84 me ipse consolabar. Expressions like a se ipsis are quite uncommon in Cicero. Cf. n. on Lael. 5 te ipse cognosces; also see below, 38 se ipsa 78 se ipse. — naturae necessitas: 'the inevitable conditions of nature.' Cf. 71 quid est tam secundum naturam quam senibus emori? — afferat: subjunctive because nihil quod = nihil tale ut. A 320, a; G. 633, 634; H. 503, I. — quo in genere: sc. rerum; with this phrase the defining genitive is commonly omitted by Cicero. So below, 45 in eo genere. — ut ... adeptam: notice the chiasmus. — eandem: idem is used in the same way, to mark an emphatic contrast in 24, 52, 68, 71. — adeptam: this is probably the only example in Cicero of the passive use of adeptus, which occurs in Sallust, Ovid, Tacitus, etc.; and in this passage the use cannot be looked on as certain, since one of the very best and several of the inferior MSS. read adepti. Cicero, however, uses a good many deponent participles in a passive sense (cf. below, 59 dimensa; 74 meditatum; see also a list, Roby, 734), and some of them occur very rarely. Thus periclitatus, arbitratus, depastus as passives are found each in only one passage. — inconstantia: 'instability', 'inconsistency'. Constantia, unwavering firmness and consistency, is the characteristic of the wise man; cf. Acad. 2, 23 sapientia ... quae ex sese habeat constantiam; also Lael. 8 and 64.

P. 3 — aiunt: sc. stulti. — putassent: the subjunctive is due to the indirect discourse. Where we say 'I should not have thought,' the Latins say, in direct narration, 'non putaram,' i.e. 'I never had thought' (so Off. 1, 81 and often in Cicero's letters). Translate, 'more quickly than they had ever expected'. Cf. Att. 6, 1, 6 accipiam equidem dolorem mihi ilium irasci sed multo maiorem non esse eum talem qualem putassem. See Zumpt, Gram., 518. — falsum putare: 'to form a mistaken judgment'. For falsum as noun equivalent to ψευδος, cf. 6 gratissimum; also n. on 3 ceteris. — qui citius: lit. 'in what way quicker'; cf. Tusc. 5, 89 qui melius. H. 188, II. 2. — adulescentia ... senectus ... pueritia: babyhood was generally at Rome supposed to last till the 17th year (the time for assuming the toga virilis and for beginning military service). Iuventus is usually the age from 17 to 45, during which men were liable to be called on for active service. Ordinarily, in colloquial language, adulescentia is the earlier portion of iuventus, say the years from 17 to 30 (cf. 33), but Cicero seems here to make adulescentia co-extensive with iuventus. From 45 to 60 is the aetas seniorum, the period during which citizens in early Rome might be called out for the defence of the city, but not for active service. Senectus was commonly reckoned as beginning at 60; but in § 60 Cicero includes in senectus the aetas seniorum, and probably intended to include it here. In Tusc. 1, 34 Cic. reckons three ages pueritia adulescentia senectus as here; below in 74, four periods, or five. — quamvis: = quantumvis. — effluxisset: subjunctive because the mood of posset, to which it stands in subordinate relation Cum here is purely temporal. See Roby, 1778; A. 342; G. 666; H. 529, II. — posset: see n. on esset above, 3.

5. si ... soletis ... sumus: the apodosis and protasis do not exactly correspond; the sense really required is 'if that wisdom for which you admire me does exist, it lies in this', etc. — utinam ... esset: esset here gives a greater appearance of modesty than would been expressed by sit: 'would it were, as it certainly is not'. A. 267; G. 253; H. 483, 2. — cognomine: Cato bore the title sapiens, even in his lifetime; see Introd. Cognomen is used in good Latin to denote both the family name and the acquired by-name; in late Latin this latter is denoted by agnomen. — in hoc sapientes: but above, 4 rerum sapientiam, not in rebus. The genitive construction is not found with sapiens used as noun or adjective till late Latin times. — naturam ducem etc.: Cato's claim to the title of sapiens does not rest on any deep knowledge of philosophy, but on practical wisdom or common sense and experience in affairs. Cf. Lael. 6 and 19. In this passage Cicero has put into Cato's mouth phrases borrowed from the Stoic philosophy, which declared the life of virtue to be life in accordance with nature (naturae convenienter vivere or ‛ομολογουμενως τη φυσει ζην). Cf. 71, n. on secundum naturam. — tamquam deum: observe deum not deam, because nature is compared with, and not identified with, a divine being. Cf. Fin. 5, 43 eam (rationem) quasi deum ducem subsequens. — aetatis: here = vitae, life as a whole. Cf. 2 omne tempus aetatis and n.; also 13 aetatis ... senectus; 33, 64, 82. — descriptae: 'composed'; literally 'written out'. The reading discriptae, which many editions give, does not so well suit the passage. Discribere is to map out, plan, arrange, put in order (see 59 discripta and discriptio); the point here lies, however, not in the due arrangement of the different scenes of a play, but in the careful working out of each scene. Ab ea must be supplied after descriptae from a qua above. — actum: the common comparison of life with a drama is also found in 64, 70, 85. — inerti: the sense of 'ignorant' 'inartistic' (in, ars), has been given to this by some editors (cf. Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 126 praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, and Cic. Fin. 2, 115 artes, quibus qui carebant, inertes a maioribus nominabantur), but the meaning 'inactive', 'lazy', 'slovenly' seems to suit neglectum better. — poeta: nature is here the dramatist, the drama is life, the actors are human beings. — sed tamen etc.: 'but for all that it was inevitable that there should be something with the nature of an end'. So 69 in quo est aliquid extremum, 43 aliquid pulchrum. — arborum bacis: the word baca (the spelling bacca has little or no authority) is applied to all fruits growing on bushes or trees, cf. Tusc. 1, 31 arbores seret diligens agricola, quarum aspiciet bacam ipse numquam. — terraeque fructibus: here = cereals, roots, vegetables and small fruits. No sharp distinction can be drawn between fruges and fructus (e.g. in Div. 1, 116 we have fruges terrae bacasve arborum) though fructus as commonly used is the more general word of the two. — maturitate caducum: 'a time of senility, so to speak and readiness to drop, that comes of a seasonable ripeness'. Vietus is literally 'twisted' or bent', being originally the passive participle of viere. The comparison of old age with the ripeness of fruit recurs in 71. Cf. Plin. Ep. 5, 14, 5 non tam aetatis maturitate quam vitae. — ferundum: the form in undus is archaic, and generally used by Cic. in quoting or imitating passages of laws, sacred formulae, and the like. H 239. — molliter: here 'gently', 'with resignation', though molliter ferre often has another meaning, viz. to bear pain or trouble in an unmanly fashion. Cf. facillime ferre below. — quid est aliud etc. The words perhaps imply the rationalistic explanation of myths which the Greeks had begun to teach to the Romans during Cato's lifetime. Trans 'what else but resistance to nature is equivalent to warring against the gods, and not 'what else does warring with the gods mean but to resist nature.' In comparisons of this sort the Latins generally put the things compared in a different order from that required by English idiom. Thus in Div. 2, 78 quid est aliud nolle moneri a Iove nisi efficere ut aut ne fieri possit auspicium aut, si fiat, videri, S. Rosc. 54 quid est aliud iudicio ac legibus ac maiestate vestra abuti ad quaestum ac libidinem nisi hoc modo accusare. Phil. 1, 22, 2, 7, 5, 5, 10, 5. — Gigantum modo: see n. on 4 Aetna gravius — dis: for the form dis see n. on 25.

6. atqui: in the best Latin atqui does not introduce a statement contradicting the preceding statement, but one that supplements it. Here it may be translated 'True, but'. Cf. 66, 81. — gratissimum: equivalent to rem gratissimam. With the thought cf. Rep. 1, 34 gratum feceris si explicaris. Lael. 16 pergratum feceris si disputaris. — ut pollicear: so Acad. 1, 33 nos vero volumus ut pro Attico respondeam. Brut. 122 nobis vero placet, ut pro Bruto etiam respondeam; Lael. 32 tu vero perge, pro hoc enim respondeo A 317, c, H 499, 2, n. — senes fieri: if the infinitive had depended on speramus alone and volumus had not intervened, Cicero would probably have written nos futuros esse senes. — multo ante: sc. quam id factum erit so Balb 41 re denique multo ante (sc. quam factum est) audita, and very often in Cicero. — didicerimus: as this corresponds with feceris,it would have been formally correct to write here nos docueris. — quibus possimus: 'what considerations will enable us most easily to support the growing burden of age'. — futurum est: = μελλει ειναι this form of the future is used in preference to the simple erit because it is desired to represent the event as on the very point of fulfilment, and therefore sure of fulfilment. Erit would have implied much less certainty. Trans. 'I will do so if my action is going to give you pleasure'. Cf. 67 beatus futurus sum, also 81, 85. See Roby, 1494. — nisi molestum est: a common expression of courtesy, like 15 nisi alienum putas, si placet, cf. Hor. Sat. 2, 8, 4 si grave non est. — tamquam longam viam: Cicero here puts into Laelius' mouth almost the very words addressed by Socrates to the aged Cephalus in the introduction to Plato's Republic, 328 E. Observe the succession of similar sounds in tamquam, aliquam, longam, viam. — viam confeceris so pro Quint. 79 conficere DCC milia passuum, conficere iter a common phrase. For mood see A 312, G 604, H 513, II. — quam ... ingrediundum sit: this construction, the neuter of the gerundive with est followed by an accusative case, is exceedingly rare excepting in two writers, Lucretius and Varro. See the full list of examples given by Roby, Gram., Pref. to vol. 2, p LXXII. A 294, c, H 371, I. 2, 2, n. The best texts of Cicero now give only one example of a construction at all resembling this, viz. pro Scauro 13 obliviscendum vobis putatis matrum in liberos, virorum in uxores scelera? The supposition of some scholars, that in this passage Cic. used the construction in imitation of the archaic style of Cato, is not likely to be true, seeing that in Cato's extant works the construction does not once occur. For the form undum see n. on 5 ferundum. — istuc: not adverb, but neuter pronoun, as in 8. The kind of construction, istuc videre quale sit for videre quale istuc sit, is especially common in Cicero.

7. faciam ut potero 'I will do it as well as I can.' Observe the future potero where English idiom would require a present. So Rep. 1, 38 hic Scipio, faciam quod voltis, ut potero. — saepe enim: enim introduces a reason, not for the words ut potero, but for faciam — 'I will grant your request because I have often heard complaints about old age and therefore have thought of the matter.' — pares autem etc.: parenthetical. — vetere proverbio: the saying is as old as Homer, Od. 17, 218 as ‛ως αιει τον ‛ομοιον αγει θεος ‛ως τον ‛ομοιον; cf. also Plat., Rep. 329 A, Symp. 195 B, Phaedr. 240 C.

P. 4 — facillime: 'most cheerfully', 'most eagerly'; a common meaning of the word in Cic., e.g. Fam. 2, 16, 2 in maritimis facillime sum, i.e. 'I find most pleasure in staying by the sea'. — quae: a kind of explanation of querellis. — 'lamentations, viz. such utterances as' etc.; see n. on Lael. 14 quae; cf. Fam. 2, 8, 2 sermonibus de re publica ... quae nec possunt scribi nec scribenda sunt. A. 199, b; G. 616, 3, I.; H. 445, 5. — C. Salinator: probably C. Livius Salinator, praetor in 191 B.C. (Livy 35, 24), who was entrusted with the equipment of the Roman fleets during the war against Antiochus. He was born about 230, and was therefore a little younger than Cato; cf. fere aequales below. Salinator was consul in 188, and died in 170. For the name Salinator cf. n. on 11. — Sp. Albinus: Sp. Postumius Albinus was consul in 186, and was with his colleague appointed to investigate the great Bacchanalian conspiracy of that year (Livy 39, CC. 1 seq.). Albinus died in 180. He was probably a little younger than Salinator. He can scarcely have been fifty years of age at his death. — tum ... tum: 'now ... again'; so in 45. — carerent: see n. on 3 ferat. — vitam nullam putarent: 'they considered life to be not life at all'. For vitam nullam cf. Lael. 86 sine amicitia vitam esse nullam; also the Greek phrase βιος αβιωτος; and below, 77 vitam quae est sola vita nominanda; also 82. A. 239; H. 373, 1, n. 2. Putarent = 'thought, as they said'. — id quod esset accusandum: the subjunctive esset is used because a class of things is referred to, 'nothing of a nature to deserve complaint'; id quod erat, etc. would have meant merely 'that one thing which was matter for complaint'. A. 320; G. 634, Rem. 1; H. 503, I. — usu venirent: the phrase usu venire differs very little in meaning from accidere. Usu is commonly explained as an ablative ('in practice', 'in experience'), but is quite as likely to be a dative of the sort generally called predicative ('to come as matter of experience'); cf. Verg. Aen. 1, 22 venire excidio; Plin. N.H. 28, 106 odio; Caes. B.G. 5, 27 subsidio. — quorum ... multorum: the first genitive is dependent on the second, so that quorum = e quibus. Notice the separation of quorum from multorum and of multorum from senectutem. — sine querella: attribute of senectutem. A. 217, Rem.; H. 359, n. 1, 4), and n. 3. This form of attributive phrase, consisting of a preposition with a noun, is common; cf. 24 ex agro Sabino rusticos Romanos; 40 cum hostibus clandestina colloquia. Querella is better spelling than querela. See Roby, 177, 2. — qui: 'men of such nature as to ...' — et ... nec: Roby 2241. The reason for the departure from the ordinary sequence of particles lies in the words non moleste. Nec is common; see 51, 53. — libidinum vinculis etc.: Cic. is here thinking of the conversation between Socrates and Cephalus in Plato, Rep. 329 D, for which see Introd. — moderati: 'self-controlled'; cf. n. on 1 moderationem; difficiles, 'peevish'; inhumani, 'unkindly'; importunitas, 'perversity'. Importunitas seems to be used as the substantive corresponding in sense with the adjective difficilis. Difficultas, in the sense of 'peevishness', probably occurs only in Mur. 19.

8. dixerit quispiam: 'some one will say presently'; a gentle way of introducing one's own objection. The mood of dixerit is probably indicative, not subjunctive; see the thorough discussion in Roby, Gram., Vol. 2, Pref., p. CIV. et seq. — opes et copias: 'resources and means'. Opes has a wider meaning than copias (mere material wealth) and includes all sources of power, influence, and authority as well as wealth. Thus in Lael. 22 the end of divitiae is said to be enjoyment; of opes, worship (opes ut colare). Dignitas is social position. — id: remark the singular pronoun, which indicates that the preceding clause is now taken as conveying one idea. Trans. 'such fortune'. — contingere: 'to fall to one's lot' is the phrase in English which most closely represents contingere. This verb is not, as is often assumed, used merely of good fortune; it implies in itself nothing concerning the character of events, whether they be good or bad, but simply that the events take place naturally and were to be expected. See n. on Lael. 8, where the word is distinctly used in connection with bad fortune, as it is, strikingly, in 71 below. — est ... omnia: 'your statement indeed amounts to something, but it by no means comprises every consideration'. The phrase esse aliquid, 'to be of some importance', is often used by Cic. both of things and of persons; cf. Tusc. 5, 104 eos aliquid esse, also n. on 17 nihil afferunt. So esse aliquis of persons, as in the well-known passage of Iuvenal, 1, 72 aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum si vis esse aliquis. For the general sense cf. Tusc. 3, 52 est id quidem magnum, sed non sunt in hoc omnia; so De Or. 2, 215; ib. 3, 221; Leg. 2, 24 in quo sunt omnia. — isto: the use of the neuter pronoun in the oblique case as substantive is noticeable. — Themistocles etc.: Cicero borrows the story from Plato (Rep. 329 E et seq.), but it was first told by Herodotus, 8, 125 who gave a somewhat different version. Themistocles had received great honors at Sparta when Athenian ambassador there; an envious man declaring that the honors were paid really to Athens and not to Themistocles, the statesman answered ουτ αν εγω, εων Βελβινιτης (i.e. an inhabitant of the small island of Belbina lying to the S. of Cape Sunium) ετιμηθην ουτω προς Σπαρτιηρεων, ουτ αν συ, ανθρωπε, εων Αθηναιος. — Seriphio: Seriphus is a small island belonging to the Cyclad group and lying almost due N. of Melos, and due E. of the Scyllaean promontory. Seriphus is often taken by ancient writers as a specimen of an insignificant community (e.g. Aristoph. Acharn. 542; Cic. N.D. 1, 88), but it had the honor of being one of the three island states which refused to give earth and water to the Persian envoys, the other two being the adjacent islands of Melos and Siphnus (Herodotus, 8, 46). — iurgio: iurgium is a quarrel which does not go beyond words; rixa a quarrel where the disputants come to blows. — si ego: but further on, tu si. The contrast would certainly be more perfect if ego si were read, as has been proposed, in place of si ego. — quod eodem modo ... dici: Cic. commonly says quod ita dicendum and the like; see n. on 35 quod ni ita fuisset. Cato means that just as Themistocles' success was due to two things, his own character and his good fortune, so two things are necessary to make old age endurable, viz. moderate fortune and wisdom. He then in 9 insists that of these two conditions wisdom is far the more important. — nec ... levis ... nec ... non gravis: notice the chiasmus.

9. omnino: here = πανταπασι 'undoubtedly', in a strongly affirmative sense, as in 76; but in 28 (where see n.) it is concessive. — cum diu multumque vixeris: literally 'when you have lived long and much', i.e. when you have not only had a long life but have done a great deal in the course of it. The phrases diu multumque, multum et diu are common in Cic., as below, 38; Acad. 1, 4; Div. 2, 1; Off 1, 118; Leg. Agr. 2, 88; De Or. 1, 152. For mood see A. 309, a; H. 518, 2. — ecferunt: ecferunt for efferunt (ec = ex = ecs; so εκ = εξ = εκς) was old-fashioned in Cicero's time, but forms of the sort, as below, 39 ecfrenate, according to the evidence of the best MSS., occur in a good many passages. See Neue, Formenlehre, Vol. 2, pp. 766 seq., ed. 2. — numquam deserunt: the omission of the object after deserunt is not common. With the general sense of this passage cf. Arch. 16 litterarum studia adulescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solarium praebent, delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rusticantur.

P. 5 — 10. Q. Maximum: the famous Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Ovicula Cunctator, hero of the Second Punic War. — eum ... recepit: this clause has often been suspected to be an insertion of the writers of MSS. But (1) the capture of Tarentum in 209 B.C. was Fabius' crowning achievement, and 'captor of Tarentum' was often added to his name as a title of honor; see De Orat. 2, 273; and (2) there were several other persons of distinction bearing the name Q. Maximus about the same time, so that some special mark was wanted for the sake of clearness. Notice recepit 'recovered', Tarentum having been lost by the Romans to Hannibal in 212 B.C. — senem adulescens: observe the emphasis given by placing close together the two words of opposite meaning. — erat ... gravitas: 'that hero possessed dignity tempered by courtesy'. Expressions like erat in illo gravitas are common in Cicero; e.g. Mur. 58 erat in Cotta summa eloquentia. The metaphor in condīta, 'seasoned', is also common; cf. Lael. 66 condimentum amicitiae. — quamquam: 'though indeed', introducing a necessary correction of the last words nec senectus mores mutaverat. For this corrective quamquam cf. n. on 2. — consul primum: B.C. 233. — grandem natu: although the phrases maior, maximus, parvus, minor, minimus natu are of frequent occurrence, yet magnus natu is not Latin, grandis natu being always used instead. The historians sometimes use magno natu esse or in magno natu esse. — anno post: the word unus is not usually attached to annus except where there is a strong contrast between one and a larger number of years. Anno post must not be translated 'during the year after'; but either 'a year after', anno being regarded as the ablative of measure or excess, literally 'later by a year', or 'at the end of a year', the ablative being one of limitation, and fuerat being equivalent to factus erat 'had been elected'. So quinto anno below, 'at the end of the fifth year', i.e. 'five years after'. — adulescentulus miles: See n. on 21 quemquam senem. Translate 'when quite a youth I marched with him to Capua as a private soldier'. G. 324; H. 363, 3, 2). Miles here = gregarius miles. — quem magistratum: sc. quaesturam, to be understood from quaestor Cf. Mur. 18 quaesturam una petiit et sum ego factus (sc. quaestor) prior. — Tuditano et Cethego: when the praenomina of the consuls are given the names generally stand side by side without et; when they are omitted et is generally inserted. Cf. n. on 50 Centone Tuditanoque, etc. — cum quidem: the quidem simply adds a slight emphasis to cum; 'at the very time when', επειδη γε. — suasor: suasor legis was any person who publicly (i.e. before the senate or people in contio assembled) spoke in favor of a measure, dissuasor any one who spoke against it. Cf. 14 suasissem. — legis Cinciae: a law passed in 204 B.C. by M. Cincius Alimentus, a plebeian tribune, whereby advocates were forbidden to take fees from their clients, and certain limitations were placed on gifts of property by private persons. — cum ... esset: 'though he was'; so below 11, 30, etc. — grandis: = grandis natu. — iuveniliter: Hannibal was 29 years of age when he entered Italy in 218. — exsultantem: 'wildly roaming'. The word in its literal sense is used of a horse galloping at its own will over a plain. The metaphorical use is common in Cicero; cf. Acad. 2, 112 cum sit campus in quo exsultare possit oratio, cur eam tantas in angustias compellimus? — patientia: 'endurance', 'persistence'; it is not equivalent to our 'patience'. — praeclare: sc. dicit; cf. n. on 3. — familiaris: see Introd. — unus homo etc.: these lines were famous, and were not only often quoted with the name of Ennius attached (as in Off. 1, 84; Livy 30, 26), but also imitated or adapted without mention of his name, as, being too familiar to need it; cf. Att. 2, 19, 2; Ovid, Fast. 2, 241; Verg. Aen. 6, 846; Suet. Tib. 21. — cunctando: Cf. Polybius 3, 105, 8. On Fabius' military policy consult Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, Bk. III. ch. 5. — rem: here = rem publicam. — noenum: the older form from which non is an abbreviation; = ne-oinom, n-oinom, literally 'not one thing'; cf. nihil = ne-hilum 'not a whit', also the rare word ningulus = ne oinculus, 'not even a little one'. — rumores: 'fame', 'public opinion'. — ponebāt: for the long vowel cf. n. on 1, l. 2 versat. — plusque: MSS. postque; plusqueis the emendation of Bernays. Plusque magisque is a variation upon the ordinary phrases plus plusque, magis magisque.