A surgeon, a trustworthy man, and with whom I am upon intimate terms, on his return 토토사이트 from the East Indies informed me, in perfect sincerity, that some inland and mountainous parts of the island of Borneo are still inhabited by a race of caudate human beings (a circumstance of which we also read in Pausanias), one of whom, a virgin, who had only been captured with great difficulty, for they live in the woods, he himself had seen, with a tail, thick, fleshy, and a span in length, reflected between the buttocks, and covering the anus and pudenda: so regularly has nature willed to cover these parts.

To return. The structure of the velabrum in the fowl is like that of the upper eyelid; that is to say, it is a fleshy and muscular fold of the skin, having fibres extending from the circumference on every side towards the centre; its inner surface, like that of the eyelid and prepuce, being soft. Along its margin also there is a semicircular tarsus, after the manner of that of the eyelid; and in addition, between the skin and fleshy membrane, an interposed cartilage, extending from the root of the rump, the sickle-shaped tarsus being connected with it at right angles, (very much as we observe a small tail comprehended between the wing on either side, in bats). By this structure the velabrum is enabled more readily to open and close the foramina pudendi that have been mentioned.

The velabrum being now raised and removed, certain foramina are brought into view, some of which are very distinct, others more obscure. The more obvious are the anus and vulva, or the outlet of the fæcal matters and the inlet to the uterus. The more obscure are, first, that by which the urine is excreted from the kidneys, and, second, the small orifice discovered by Fabricius, “into which,” he says, “the cock immits the spermatic fluid,” a foramen, however, which neither Antony Ulm, a careful dissector, has indicated in Aldrovandus, nor any one else except Fabricius, so far as I know, has ever observed.{183}

All these foramina are so close to one another that they seem almost to meet in a single cavity, which, as being common to the fæces and urine, may be called the cloaca. In this cavity, the urine, as it descends from the kidneys, is mingled with the feculent matters of the bowels, and the two are discharged together. Through this, too, the egg, as it is laid, forces itself a passage.

Now, the arrangements in this cavity are such, that both excrements descending into a common sac, the urine is made use of as a natural clyster for their evacuation. The cloaca is therefore thicker and more rugous than the intestine; and at the moment of laying and of coition, it is everted, (the velabrum which covers it being raised as I have already said,) the lower portion of the bowel being as it were prolapsed. At this moment all the foramina that terminate in the cloaca are conspicuous; on the return or reduction of the prolapsed portion, however, they are concealed, being all collected together as it were into the common purse or pouch.

The more conspicuous foramina, those, viz. of the anus and uterus, are situated, with reference to one another, differently in birds from what they are in other animals. In these the pudendum, or female genital part, is situated anteriorly between the rectum and bladder; in birds, however, the excrementitious outlet is placed anteriorly, so that the inlet to the uterus is situated between this and the rump.

The foramen, into which Fabricius believes the cock to inject his fluid, is discovered between the orifice of the vulva and the rump. I, however, deny any such use to this foramen; for in young chickens it is scarcely to be seen, and in adults it is present indifferently both in males and females. It is obvious, therefore, that it is both an extremely small and obscure orifice, and can have no such important function to perform: it will scarcely admit a fine needle or a bristle, and it ends in a blind cavity; neither have I ever been able to discover any spermatic fluid within it, although Fabricius asserts that this fluid is stored up there even for a whole year, and that all the eggs contained in the ovary may be thence fecundated, as it is afterwards stated.

All birds, serpents, oviparous quadrupeds, and likewise fishes, as may readily be seen in the carp, have kidneys and{184} ureters through which the urine distils, a fact which was unknown to Aristotle and philosophers up to this time. In birds and serpents, which have spongy or largely vesicular lungs, the quantity of urine secreted is small, because they drink little, and that by sipping; there was, therefore, no occasion for an urinary bladder in these creatures: the renal secretion, as already stated, is accumulated in a common cavity or cloaca, along with the drier intestinal excrement. Nevertheless, I do find an urinary bladder in the carp and some other fishes.

In the common fowl the ureters descend from the kidneys, which are situated in long and ample cavities on either side of the back, to terminate in the common cavity or cloaca. Their terminations, however, are so obscure and so hidden by the margin of the cavity, that to discover them from without and pass a fine probe into them would be found impossible. Nor is this at all surprising, because in all, even the largest animals, the insertion of the ureters near the neck of the bladder is so tortuous and obscure, that although the urine distils freely from them into the bladder, and calculi even make their way out of them, still neither fluids nor air can be made to enter them by the use of any amount of force. On the other hand, in birds as well as other animals, a probe or a bristle passed downwards from the kidney towards the bladder by the ureters, readily makes its way into the cloaca or bladder.

These facts are particularly distinct in the ostrich, in which, besides the external orifice of the common cavity which the velabrum covers, I find another within the anus, having a round and constricted orifice, shutting in some sort in the manner of a sphincter.